Health Scope

Published by: Kowsar

Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment in Two Gas Refinery Units

Alireza Askarian 1 , Mohammad Javad Jafari 2 , 3 , * , Leila Omidi 4 , Mohammad Reza Miri Lavasani 5 , Lobat Taghavi 6 and Alireza Ashori 7
Authors Information
1 PhD Student, Department of Environmental Management, Faculty of Marine Science and Technology, Tehran North Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
2 Professor, Center for Research on Environmental and Occupational Hazardous Agents Control, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3 Department of Occupational Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
4 PhD Student, Department of Occupational Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
5 Assistant Professor, Department of HSE Management, Graduate School of the Environment and Energy, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
6 Assistant Professor, Department of Environment and Energy, Science and Research Branch Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
7 South Pars Gas Complex, Bushehr, Iran
Article information
  • Health Scope: February 2018, 7 (1); e68252
  • Published Online: February 25, 2018
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: November 27, 2015
  • Revised: April 24, 2016
  • Accepted: November 28, 2016
  • DOI: 10.5812/jhealthscope.68252

To Cite: Askarian A, Jafari M J, Omidi L, Miri Lavasani M R, Taghavi L, et al. Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment in Two Gas Refinery Units, Health Scope. 2018 ; 7(1):e68252. doi: 10.5812/jhealthscope.68252.

Copyright © 2018, Journal of Health Scope. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. Jafari MJ, Askarian AR, Omidi L, Lavasani MRM, Taghavi L, Ashori AR. The assessment of independent layers of protection in gas sweetening towers of two gas refineries [In Persian]. J Saf Promot Inj Prev. 2014;2(2):103-12.
  • 2. Berg AR. Applicability of layer of protection analysis to determine safety integrity levels in the process industry. Norwegian University of Science and Technology; 2007.
  • 3. Ouazraoui N, Nait-Said R, Bourareche M, Sellami I. Layers of protection analysis using possibility theory. Int J Intell Syst Appl. 2013;1:16-29.
  • 4. Jafari MJ, Gharari M, Ghafari M, Omidi L, Kalantari S, Fardi GRA. The influence of safety training on safety climate factors in a construction site. Int J Occup Hyg. 2014;6(2):81-7.
  • 5. Crowl DA L. Layer of protection analysis: simplified process risk assessment. Center for Chemical Process Safety of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers; 2001.
  • 6. Summers AE. Introduction to layers of protection analysis. J Hazard Mater. 2003;104(1-3):163-8. doi: 10.1016/S0304-3894(03)00242-5. [PubMed: 14602407].
  • 7. Gowland R. The accidental risk assessment methodology for industries (ARAMIS)/layer of protection analysis (LOPA) methodology: a step forward towards convergent practices in risk assessment? J Hazard Mater. 2006;130(3):307-10. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2005.07.007. [PubMed: 16139426].
  • 8. Dowell Iii AM. Layer of protection analysis for determining safety integrity level. ISA Trans. 1998;37(3):155-65. doi: 10.1016/s0019-0578(98)00018-4.
  • 9. International Electrotechnical Commission. IEC 61508 standard, Functional Safety of Electrical/Electronic/Programmable Electronic Safety-related Systems. Geneva; 1998.
  • 10. International Electrotechnical Commission. IEC 61511 standard, Functional safety – Safety instrumented systems for the process industry sector. Parts 1-3. Switzerland; 2003.
  • 11. Pasman H, Rogers W. Bayesian networks make LOPA more effective, QRA more transparent and flexible, and thus safety more definable!. J Loss Prev Process Ind. 2013;26(3):434-42. doi: 10.1016/j.jlp.2012.07.016.
  • 12. Yun GW, Rogers WJ, Mannan MS. Risk assessment of LNG importation terminals using the Bayesian–LOPA methodology. J Loss Prev Process Ind. 2009;22(1):91-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jlp.2008.10.001.
  • 13. Jafari MJ, Lajevardi SS, Fam IM. Semi quantitative risk assessment of a hydrogen production unit. Int J Occup Hyg. 2013;5(3):101-8.
  • 14. Ellis GR, Wharton M. Practical experience in determining safety integrity levels for safety instrumented systems, Institution of chemical engineers symposium series, 2006. Institution of Chemical Engineers; 1999.
  • 15. Ferdous R, Khan F, Sadiq R, Amyotte P, Veitch B. Handling data uncertainties in event tree analysis. Process Saf Environ Prot. 2009;87(5):283-92. doi: 10.1016/j.psep.2009.07.003.
  • 16. Jo YD, Ahn BJ. A method of quantitative risk assessment for transmission pipeline carrying natural gas. J Hazard Mater. 2005;123(1-3):1-12. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2005.01.034. [PubMed: 15913887].
  • 17. Srinivasan R, Venkatasubramanian V. Automating HAZOP analysis of batch chemical plants. Comput Chem Eng. 1998;22(9):1345-55. doi: 10.1016/s0098-1354(98)00018-0.
  • 18. Nolan D. Application of HAZOP and What-If safety reviews to the petroleum, petrochemical and chemical industries. Noyes Data Corporation/Noyes Publications; 1994.
  • 19. Kangavari M, Salimi S, Nourian R, Askarian A. An application of failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) to assess risks in petrochemical industry in Iran. Iran J Health Saf Environ. 2015;2(2):257-63.
  • 20. Beckman L. Determining the required safety integrity level for your process. ISA Trans. 1998;37(2):105-11. doi: 10.1016/s0019-0578(98)00011-1.
  • 21. Stauffer T. Making the most of alarms as a layer of protection. Safety Control Systems Conference-IDC Technologies. 2010.
  • 22. Hong ES, Lee IM, Shin HS, Nam SW, Kong JS. Quantitative risk evaluation based on event tree analysis technique: Application to the design of shield TBM. Tunnel Underground Space Technol. 2009;24(3):269-77. doi: 10.1016/j.tust.2008.09.004.
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments