Papads are basically made from black gram, lentil, rice flour, potatoes, or sago with spices and condiments. The recipes and popularity of the snack differs depending upon the region of origin. Papads add taste to food, and have health benefits as its ingredients have multiple functions. Black gram is one of the most highly prized pulses of India. It is very nutritious and recommended for diabetics, as are other pulses (
1). Like most other legumes, black gram is a good source of protein, minerals, and polysaturated fatty acids. It is deficient in methionine, but possesses lysine in excess. Therefore, blending it with rice and other foods has a complimentary effect and provides an increased level of sulfur-containing amino acids. Pepper is native to India and has been known to Indian cuisine since 2000 BC. Asafoetida works as a flavor enhancer. Papad Khar is an essential and vital ingredient in papads making and contributes to the organoleptic quality in terms of crispness and expansion of fried papads. A desirable crispy texture of papad can be made with a blend of rice flour (25%), black gram (75%), varying the moisture content of the dough (37.8% – 41.5%), and the thickness of papad sheet (0.4 – 0.7 mm) as well as flour with high water absorption values. Also the overall acceptability is moderately correlated to diametrical expansion and water absorption capacity ( 2). Papads are consumed after deep frying or roasting. Srinivasan et al. ( 3) developed minipapads (made of black gram) containing cheese powder (0% - 50% ) and found that they had a higher fat content on frying as compared to the control but with excellent organoleptically, making them a tasty and crunchy snack food.
The fat uptake for wheat-based papads incorporated with shepu (Peucedanum graveolens) and kilkeerae (
Amaranthus tricolor) at different levels in fresh (15% and 20%) and dehydrated forms (5% and 10%) was similar to kilkeerae papads but shepu-incorporated papad showed slightly lower absorption compared to the plain papads. Minerals, vitamins, and fiber content of greens-incorporated papads increase remarkably ( 4). Sabharwal et al., ( 5) study was conducted on the effect of processing on field pea papads in terms of nutritional quality by analyzing proximate nutrients, total minerals, total sugars, antinutrients, in vitro protein, and in vitro starch digestibility using standard methods. Moisture content of the field pea processed (by roasting) papad (8.10%) was significantly lower than the unprocessed mixture (10.01%). Results indicated that there were insignificant differences regarding crude protein, crude fat and total ash content of unprocessed mixture as well as processed field pea papad. Processing showed significant effect on iron content of the papad. The carbohydrate content of unprocessed and processed papad differed significantly. There was no significant difference in Ca, and Zn content of unprocessed mixture. However, processed papad total soluble sugar of field pea papad (6.87%) differed significantly from its unprocessed mixture (6.03%). Pandey et al. ( 6) in their attempt to develop edible products from bamboo developed value added papads with bamboo shoots; they also conducted nutritional analysis, shelf life studies, and sensory evaluation for the same product and reported it as acceptable. Tarkergari et al. ( 7) examined 10 nutriDense products prepared using purslane (Portulaca oleracea) with respect to spinach incorporated dhal and vegetable mix (control). The nutrient content of the prepared recipes with reference to dietary fiber, protein, calcium, and iron were higher than the control.
Portulaca oleracea (common purslane, also known as verdolaga, pigweed, little hogweed or purslane) is an annual succulent in the family Portulacaceae, which can reach 40 cm in height. About 40 varieties of this family are currently cultivated ( 8). It is the earliest and nutritious vegetable used for human consumption, one of the richest green plant sources of omega-3 fatty acids and linolenic acid ( 9). It contains biologically active compounds such as free oxalic acids, alkaloids, flavonoids, and anthraquinone glycosides. Also, it is rich in vitamins such as vitamin A, C, B-complex, and micronutrients like iron, magnesium, calcium, potassium, and manganese. Purslane is used as a remedy for constipation and inflammation of the urinary system.
Though there is a high demand for papads, about 95% of the production of papad in the country is still at household level or in cottage scale (
10). The demand for papad is uniformly and continuously increasing in all parts of the country because it is an inseparable part of Indian food. Moreover, there is a good chance of distribution of papad outside India.