Health Scope Health Scope Health Scope http://www.jhealthscope.com 2251-8959 2251-9513 10.5812/jhealthscope. en jalali 2017 5 28 gregorian 2017 5 28 4 1
en 10.17795/jhealthscope-18688 Prevalence of Anxiety, Stress and Depressive Symptoms Among Mothers of Children With Epilepsy Prevalence of Anxiety, Stress and Depressive Symptoms Among Mothers of Children With Epilepsy research-article research-article Background

Epilepsy is a chronic disease that affects the behavior and cognitive performance of children. In many cases, the emotional impacts of epilepsy on the family are neglected. Besides the emotional distress, recurrent seizures may lead to irreversible effects on family members, especially parents.

Objectives

This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of anxiety, stress and depressive disorders among mothers of children with epilepsy.

Patients and Methods

This cross-sectional study was conducted on 100 mothers of children with epilepsy. Depression, stress, and anxiety were evaluated using the depression anxiety stress scales (DASS). Data were analyzed by SPSS version 17 and the statistical test of ANOVA.

Results

In this study, 14%, 33%, 8% and 20% of the mothers had mild, moderate, severe and very severe levels of anxiety, respectively. As far as the stress is concerned, 8%, 26%, 7% and 11% of the mothers had mild, moderate, severe and very severe levels of stress, respectively. Regarding the depression, 7%, 42%, and 1% of them had mild, moderate and severe level of depression, respectively.

Conclusions

The results of the present study showed a significant correlation between mother’s education with stress and depression. However, no significant correlation was observed between the three aforementioned problems and children’s personal and familial specifications.

Background

Epilepsy is a chronic disease that affects the behavior and cognitive performance of children. In many cases, the emotional impacts of epilepsy on the family are neglected. Besides the emotional distress, recurrent seizures may lead to irreversible effects on family members, especially parents.

Objectives

This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of anxiety, stress and depressive disorders among mothers of children with epilepsy.

Patients and Methods

This cross-sectional study was conducted on 100 mothers of children with epilepsy. Depression, stress, and anxiety were evaluated using the depression anxiety stress scales (DASS). Data were analyzed by SPSS version 17 and the statistical test of ANOVA.

Results

In this study, 14%, 33%, 8% and 20% of the mothers had mild, moderate, severe and very severe levels of anxiety, respectively. As far as the stress is concerned, 8%, 26%, 7% and 11% of the mothers had mild, moderate, severe and very severe levels of stress, respectively. Regarding the depression, 7%, 42%, and 1% of them had mild, moderate and severe level of depression, respectively.

Conclusions

The results of the present study showed a significant correlation between mother’s education with stress and depression. However, no significant correlation was observed between the three aforementioned problems and children’s personal and familial specifications.

Epilepsy;Anxiety;Depression;Children Epilepsy;Anxiety;Depression;Children http://www.jhealthscope.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=18688 Ali Khajeh Ali Khajeh Children and Adolescent Health Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Children and Adolescent Health Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Mahboubeh Firouzkoohi Mahboubeh Firouzkoohi Department of Psychiatrics, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Department of Psychiatrics, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Ghasem Miri-Aliabad Ghasem Miri-Aliabad Children and Adolescent Health Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran; Children and Adolescent Health Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-5413425626, Fax: +98-5413411251 Children and Adolescent Health Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran; Children and Adolescent Health Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-5413425626, Fax: +98-5413411251 Afshin Fayyazi Afshin Fayyazi Department of Pediatrics, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Department of Pediatrics, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Monireh Miri Bonjar Monireh Miri Bonjar Department of Pediatrics, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Department of Pediatrics, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran
en 10.17795/jhealthscope-22696 Relationship Between Knowledge Management and Quality of Working Life in Nursing Staff of Zahedan Teaching Hospitals, 2014 Relationship Between Knowledge Management and Quality of Working Life in Nursing Staff of Zahedan Teaching Hospitals, 2014 research-article research-article Conclusions

Knowledge management can improve the QWL in nursing personnel in Zahedan teaching hospitals. Based on the findings of the study, hospital managers, especially head nurses, could play a crucial role in improving QWL by institutionalization of knowledge management in nursing personnel and sharing and developing knowledge to advance the practice.

Results

Knowledge management score in single and younger participants was higher compared to other participants and it was lower in the larger hospitals. Quality of working life score in the smaller hospitals was higher than the larger hospitals (P = 0.002). There was a strong correlation between knowledge management and all dimensions of QWL in teaching hospitals (P = 0.001).

Background

Knowledge management is an attempt to discover the hidden treasure of knowledge in the minds of people and turn this treasure to organizational assets so that people who are involved in the decision making of the organization can use it. Besides, the application of knowledge management, as an organizational improvement technique, is required to assess the quality of working life (QWL).

Objectives

This study aimed to determine the association between knowledge management and dimensions of QWL in nurses working in Zahedan teaching hospitals.

Materials and Methods

In this cross-sectional study, all nursing personnel of six teaching hospitals in Zahedan, 2014, were selected using the stratified random sampling. Data were collected using two standardized Likert-style questionnaires. Data were then entered into SPSS 17.0 software and analyzed using Pearson, t test and the one-way ANOVA test.

Conclusions

Knowledge management can improve the QWL in nursing personnel in Zahedan teaching hospitals. Based on the findings of the study, hospital managers, especially head nurses, could play a crucial role in improving QWL by institutionalization of knowledge management in nursing personnel and sharing and developing knowledge to advance the practice.

Results

Knowledge management score in single and younger participants was higher compared to other participants and it was lower in the larger hospitals. Quality of working life score in the smaller hospitals was higher than the larger hospitals (P = 0.002). There was a strong correlation between knowledge management and all dimensions of QWL in teaching hospitals (P = 0.001).

Background

Knowledge management is an attempt to discover the hidden treasure of knowledge in the minds of people and turn this treasure to organizational assets so that people who are involved in the decision making of the organization can use it. Besides, the application of knowledge management, as an organizational improvement technique, is required to assess the quality of working life (QWL).

Objectives

This study aimed to determine the association between knowledge management and dimensions of QWL in nurses working in Zahedan teaching hospitals.

Materials and Methods

In this cross-sectional study, all nursing personnel of six teaching hospitals in Zahedan, 2014, were selected using the stratified random sampling. Data were collected using two standardized Likert-style questionnaires. Data were then entered into SPSS 17.0 software and analyzed using Pearson, t test and the one-way ANOVA test.

Knowledge Management;Nursing;Teaching Hospitals Knowledge Management;Nursing;Teaching Hospitals http://www.jhealthscope.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=22696 Mohammad Khammarnia Mohammad Khammarnia Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Fateme Shahsavani Fateme Shahsavani Student Scientific Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Student Scientific Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Mahnaz Shahrakipour Mahnaz Shahrakipour Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Eshagh Barfar Eshagh Barfar Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran; Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-5413425839, Fax: +98-5413425838 Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran; Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-5413425839, Fax: +98-5413425838
en 10.17795/jhealthscope-20667 Optimization of Affective Parameter on Cadmium Removal From an Aqueous Solution by Citrullus colocynthis Powdered Fruits by Response Surface Optimization of Affective Parameter on Cadmium Removal From an Aqueous Solution by <italic>Citrullus colocynthis</italic> Powdered Fruits by Response Surface research-article research-article Background

Cadmium is a toxic metal that occurs naturally in the environment and is considered as a pollutant emanating from industrial and agricultural sources. Biosorption is a very simple and cheap technique for removal of metal pollutants from aqueous samples.

Objectives

In this study, removal of cadmium from aqueous solutions using C. colocynthis fruit powder was studied.

Materials and Methods

The effect of three parameters such as pH, initial concentration of cadmium and adsorbent dosage were optimized. For investigation of these parameters and exemption of optimal conditions the Box-Behnken design (BBD) was used.

Results

The best results for percentage extraction of cadmium by C. colocynthis with BBD design was obtained at pH = 4.5, initial cadmium concentration of 31.22 and adsorbent dosage of 3.75 g/L. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and R2 = 0.98 showed that the model was able to predict the removal of cadmium by C. colocynthis fruit powder.

Conclusions

Results of this research imply that the adsorption of cadmium was enhanced, by increasing the cadmium concentration and contact time. Based on the ANOVA results, the models report high R2 value of 99% for cadmium removal, which is very high and advocates a high correlation between the observed values and the predicted values.

Background

Cadmium is a toxic metal that occurs naturally in the environment and is considered as a pollutant emanating from industrial and agricultural sources. Biosorption is a very simple and cheap technique for removal of metal pollutants from aqueous samples.

Objectives

In this study, removal of cadmium from aqueous solutions using C. colocynthis fruit powder was studied.

Materials and Methods

The effect of three parameters such as pH, initial concentration of cadmium and adsorbent dosage were optimized. For investigation of these parameters and exemption of optimal conditions the Box-Behnken design (BBD) was used.

Results

The best results for percentage extraction of cadmium by C. colocynthis with BBD design was obtained at pH = 4.5, initial cadmium concentration of 31.22 and adsorbent dosage of 3.75 g/L. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and R2 = 0.98 showed that the model was able to predict the removal of cadmium by C. colocynthis fruit powder.

Conclusions

Results of this research imply that the adsorption of cadmium was enhanced, by increasing the cadmium concentration and contact time. Based on the ANOVA results, the models report high R2 value of 99% for cadmium removal, which is very high and advocates a high correlation between the observed values and the predicted values.

Adsorption;Cadmium;Citrullus Adsorption;Cadmium;Citrullus http://www.jhealthscope.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=20667 Mohammad Reza Rezaei Kahkha Mohammad Reza Rezaei Kahkha Faculty of Health, Zabol University of Medical Sciences, Zabol, IR Iran; Faculty of Health, Zabol University of Medical Sciences, Zabol, IR Iran. Tel: +98-5422253525 Faculty of Health, Zabol University of Medical Sciences, Zabol, IR Iran; Faculty of Health, Zabol University of Medical Sciences, Zabol, IR Iran. Tel: +98-5422253525 Massoud Kaykhaii Massoud Kaykhaii Department of Chemistry, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, IR Iran Department of Chemistry, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, IR Iran Gholamreza Ebrahimzadeh Gholamreza Ebrahimzadeh Faculty of Health, Zabol University of Medical Sciences, Zabol, IR Iran Faculty of Health, Zabol University of Medical Sciences, Zabol, IR Iran
en 10.17795/jhealthscope-21137 Pollution Index and Ecological Risk of Heavy Metals in the Surface Soils of Amir-Abad Area in Birjand City, Iran Pollution Index and Ecological Risk of Heavy Metals in the Surface Soils of Amir-Abad Area in Birjand City, Iran research-article research-article Conclusions

It can be concluded that residential-road land uses show the considerable pollution index and ecological risk.

Materials and Methods

Soil Samples were collected from a depth of 0-20 cm at 16 stations with different users. The samples were passed through a 2-mm sieve after air drying. To determine the concentration of heavy metals, the samples were extracted by acid chloride and nitric acid and total concentrations of toxic elements were read using the atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The pollution index and ecological risk assessments were calculated for each element.

Background

In the present era, the concentration of heavy metals in the environment is increasing. Due to the deleterious effects of these metals on human health as well as their dangerous consequences on ecosystem, special attention should be paid to remove them from the environment.

Objectives

The purpose of this study was to assess the ecological risk of heavy metals including lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr) in surface soils of an Amir-Abad Area in Birjand City, Iran.

Results

The results showed that the ecological risk of surface soil for the users of the road-residential was high (1370.72) and notable (505.04), and the agricultural land use and livestock had the moderate ecological risk and dairy farm had low ecological risk. When the results of this study were compared to world standards, it was suggested that the areas with the road-residential areas were considered to be dangerous to health; this was directly related to developments of technology and pollution.

Conclusions

It can be concluded that residential-road land uses show the considerable pollution index and ecological risk.

Materials and Methods

Soil Samples were collected from a depth of 0-20 cm at 16 stations with different users. The samples were passed through a 2-mm sieve after air drying. To determine the concentration of heavy metals, the samples were extracted by acid chloride and nitric acid and total concentrations of toxic elements were read using the atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The pollution index and ecological risk assessments were calculated for each element.

Background

In the present era, the concentration of heavy metals in the environment is increasing. Due to the deleterious effects of these metals on human health as well as their dangerous consequences on ecosystem, special attention should be paid to remove them from the environment.

Objectives

The purpose of this study was to assess the ecological risk of heavy metals including lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr) in surface soils of an Amir-Abad Area in Birjand City, Iran.

Results

The results showed that the ecological risk of surface soil for the users of the road-residential was high (1370.72) and notable (505.04), and the agricultural land use and livestock had the moderate ecological risk and dairy farm had low ecological risk. When the results of this study were compared to world standards, it was suggested that the areas with the road-residential areas were considered to be dangerous to health; this was directly related to developments of technology and pollution.

Risk; Heavy Metals; Soil Pollution Risk; Heavy Metals; Soil Pollution http://www.jhealthscope.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=21137 Mohammad Hossein Sayadi Mohammad Hossein Sayadi Department of Environment, School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Birjand, Birjand, IR Iran; Department of Environment, School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Birjand, Birjand, IR Iran. Tel: +98-561225068, Fax: +98-5612254066 Department of Environment, School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Birjand, Birjand, IR Iran; Department of Environment, School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Birjand, Birjand, IR Iran. Tel: +98-561225068, Fax: +98-5612254066 Mehri Shabani Mehri Shabani Department of Environment, School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Birjand, Birjand, IR Iran Department of Environment, School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Birjand, Birjand, IR Iran Najmeh Ahmadpour Najmeh Ahmadpour Department of Environment, School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Birjand, Birjand, IR Iran Department of Environment, School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Birjand, Birjand, IR Iran
en 10.17795/jhealthscope-19892 Hexavalent Chromium Removal From Aqueous Solution Using Functionalized Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube: Optimization of Parameters by Response Surface Methodology Hexavalent Chromium Removal From Aqueous Solution Using Functionalized Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube: Optimization of Parameters by Response Surface Methodology research-article research-article Background

Chromium is one of the most commonly used heavy metals in industry. It is known as a pollutant that its discharge into the environment needs special care.

Objectives

The current study aimed to evaluate the functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs) as a novel adsorbent of chromium in aqueous solutions.

Materials and Methods

The virgin MWCNT was protonated using sulfuric acid as a strong oxidant. The operating conditions such as initial chromium concentration, contact time, adsorbent dosage and pH were evaluated in the adsorption process. A systematic model for chromium adsorption was presented based on the experimental design. Response surface method (RSM), as a mathematical technique, was used for modeling and optimizing considerable parameters. All experiments were performed according to the Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater

Results

According to the statistical analysis, R2 (0.998), adjusted R2 (0.996), prediction R2 (0.906), coefficient of variation (1.38%), and the mean removal efficiency (54.76%) were calculated.

Conclusions

The f-MWCNTs can be applied as an adsorbent with excellent properties in the adsorption process. The Efficiency of 61.75% was predicted by the model in the optimum conditions. In the experimental condition an adsorption percentage of 59.44% was obtained.

Background

Chromium is one of the most commonly used heavy metals in industry. It is known as a pollutant that its discharge into the environment needs special care.

Objectives

The current study aimed to evaluate the functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs) as a novel adsorbent of chromium in aqueous solutions.

Materials and Methods

The virgin MWCNT was protonated using sulfuric acid as a strong oxidant. The operating conditions such as initial chromium concentration, contact time, adsorbent dosage and pH were evaluated in the adsorption process. A systematic model for chromium adsorption was presented based on the experimental design. Response surface method (RSM), as a mathematical technique, was used for modeling and optimizing considerable parameters. All experiments were performed according to the Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater

Results

According to the statistical analysis, R2 (0.998), adjusted R2 (0.996), prediction R2 (0.906), coefficient of variation (1.38%), and the mean removal efficiency (54.76%) were calculated.

Conclusions

The f-MWCNTs can be applied as an adsorbent with excellent properties in the adsorption process. The Efficiency of 61.75% was predicted by the model in the optimum conditions. In the experimental condition an adsorption percentage of 59.44% was obtained.

Chromium;Adsorption;Wastewater Chromium;Adsorption;Wastewater http://www.jhealthscope.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=19892 Hooshyar Hossini Hooshyar Hossini Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran Abbas Rezaee Abbas Rezaee Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2182883575, Fax: +98-2182883575 Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2182883575, Fax: +98-2182883575 Golamreza Mohamadiyan Golamreza Mohamadiyan Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran
en 10.17795/jhealthscope-23086 The Quality of Dialysis Water: A Case Study in the Educational Hospitals of Yazd, Iran The Quality of Dialysis Water: A Case Study in the Educational Hospitals of Yazd, Iran research-article research-article Background

The chemical and physical quality of water used for dialysis fluid is a vital factor in the patients overall care who receive dialysis. Therefore, the water used for this purpose must be treated with advanced methods before being used for dialysis.

Conclusions

The evaluation of hemodialysis water quality showed that these hospitals were not significantly polluted and the water quality complied with AAMI and EPh standard limits.

Results

Based on results of the research, except chloride that its mean concentration was higher than the EPh standard, mean concentrations of cations and other compounds were significantly less than the standards (P < 0.01). Also there was a significant difference between the measured parameters in the dialysis machines input water in two educational hospitals with 99% confidence.

Materials and Methods

This cross-sectional study is performed in three months (October to December) in 2013. This research was conducted on 24 samples of dialysis machines input water. The samples were tested by titrimetric method, turbid metric method, flame photometer, pH meter, and EC meter. The SPSS V16.0 software was used for statistical analyses.

Objectives

The current study aimed to determine the chemical and physical quality of dialysis machines input water and compare it to the standards of Association for the advancement of medical instrumentation (AAMI) and European Pharmacopeia (EPh) in Yazd educational hospitals, i.e. Shahid Sadoughi and Shahid Dr. Rahnamoon.

Background

The chemical and physical quality of water used for dialysis fluid is a vital factor in the patients overall care who receive dialysis. Therefore, the water used for this purpose must be treated with advanced methods before being used for dialysis.

Conclusions

The evaluation of hemodialysis water quality showed that these hospitals were not significantly polluted and the water quality complied with AAMI and EPh standard limits.

Results

Based on results of the research, except chloride that its mean concentration was higher than the EPh standard, mean concentrations of cations and other compounds were significantly less than the standards (P < 0.01). Also there was a significant difference between the measured parameters in the dialysis machines input water in two educational hospitals with 99% confidence.

Materials and Methods

This cross-sectional study is performed in three months (October to December) in 2013. This research was conducted on 24 samples of dialysis machines input water. The samples were tested by titrimetric method, turbid metric method, flame photometer, pH meter, and EC meter. The SPSS V16.0 software was used for statistical analyses.

Objectives

The current study aimed to determine the chemical and physical quality of dialysis machines input water and compare it to the standards of Association for the advancement of medical instrumentation (AAMI) and European Pharmacopeia (EPh) in Yazd educational hospitals, i.e. Shahid Sadoughi and Shahid Dr. Rahnamoon.

Water Quality;Pollution;Hemodialysis;Hospitals;Iran Water Quality;Pollution;Hemodialysis;Hospitals;Iran http://www.jhealthscope.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=23086 Mohammad Saleh Ali Taleshi Mohammad Saleh Ali Taleshi Department of Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources, Yazd University, Yazd, IR Iran; Department of Environment, Yazd University, Yazd, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9113914839, Fax: +98-3518210312 Department of Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources, Yazd University, Yazd, IR Iran; Department of Environment, Yazd University, Yazd, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9113914839, Fax: +98-3518210312 Farhad Nejadkoorki Farhad Nejadkoorki Department of Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources, Yazd University, Yazd, IR Iran Department of Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources, Yazd University, Yazd, IR Iran Hamid Reza Azimzadeh Hamid Reza Azimzadeh Department of Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources, Yazd University, Yazd, IR Iran Department of Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources, Yazd University, Yazd, IR Iran Seyedeh Mahdieh Namayandeh Seyedeh Mahdieh Namayandeh Cardiovascular Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, IR Iran Cardiovascular Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, IR Iran Motahhareh Sadat Namayandeh Motahhareh Sadat Namayandeh Department of Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources, Yazd University, Yazd, IR Iran Department of Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources, Yazd University, Yazd, IR Iran Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian Department of Environmental Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, IR Iran Department of Environmental Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, IR Iran
en 10.17795/jhealthscope-19383 Convenient Landfill Site Selection by Using Fuzzy Logic and Geographic Information Systems: A Case Study in Bardaskan, East of Iran Convenient Landfill Site Selection by Using Fuzzy Logic and Geographic Information Systems: A Case Study in Bardaskan, East of Iran research-article research-article Background

Due to burgeoning population, solid waste site selection is one of the most crucial issues in waste management system. Regarding the complexity of waste management systems, the convenient solid waste site selection involves considering multiple alternative solutions and assessing different criteria.

Objectives

The current study, aimed to select the fuzzy logic method as one of the most popular approaches in multi criteria decision analysis (MCDA) to find a new sanitary landfill site through considering various criteria in Bardaskan city, Iran.

Materials and Methods

Nine types of criteria divided into two main groups of ecological and economical criteria were involved to select the most convenient landfill site. A model based on the multi criteria evaluation techniques and combination of geographical information systems (GIS) with fuzzy logic was employed. The ESRI Arc GIS 10 term system was utilized to manipulate and present spatial data. The fuzzy AND operator was used to overlay all standardized maps.

Results

The results of the current research proposed five locations with the fuzzy membership value of more than 0.9 as the best landfill sites in the study area. The sites were located in the North and North East of Bardaskan city. The study demonstrated that 51.97 % of the study area was not suitable for landfill location whilst only 7.8 % was highly suitable for landfill siting. About 1956.61 hectares of the studied area was suitable for territorial landfill siting.

Conclusions

The study results guided the municipality authorities to select the best landfill site among the candidate ones, and due to the broad spectrum of classifications, the output results can enable decision makers to make appropriate decisions to reduce the costs both in economical and bioenvironmental criteria.

Background

Due to burgeoning population, solid waste site selection is one of the most crucial issues in waste management system. Regarding the complexity of waste management systems, the convenient solid waste site selection involves considering multiple alternative solutions and assessing different criteria.

Objectives

The current study, aimed to select the fuzzy logic method as one of the most popular approaches in multi criteria decision analysis (MCDA) to find a new sanitary landfill site through considering various criteria in Bardaskan city, Iran.

Materials and Methods

Nine types of criteria divided into two main groups of ecological and economical criteria were involved to select the most convenient landfill site. A model based on the multi criteria evaluation techniques and combination of geographical information systems (GIS) with fuzzy logic was employed. The ESRI Arc GIS 10 term system was utilized to manipulate and present spatial data. The fuzzy AND operator was used to overlay all standardized maps.

Results

The results of the current research proposed five locations with the fuzzy membership value of more than 0.9 as the best landfill sites in the study area. The sites were located in the North and North East of Bardaskan city. The study demonstrated that 51.97 % of the study area was not suitable for landfill location whilst only 7.8 % was highly suitable for landfill siting. About 1956.61 hectares of the studied area was suitable for territorial landfill siting.

Conclusions

The study results guided the municipality authorities to select the best landfill site among the candidate ones, and due to the broad spectrum of classifications, the output results can enable decision makers to make appropriate decisions to reduce the costs both in economical and bioenvironmental criteria.

Solid Waste;Fuzzy Logic;Geographic Information System;Decision Making Solid Waste;Fuzzy Logic;Geographic Information System;Decision Making http://www.jhealthscope.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=19383 Alireza Khorram Alireza Khorram Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Maryam Yousefi Maryam Yousefi Young Researchers and Elites Club, Birjand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Birjand, IR Iran; Corresponding author: Maryam Yousefi, Young Researchers and Elites Club, Birjand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Birjand, IR Iran. Tel: +98-563-2443101 Young Researchers and Elites Club, Birjand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Birjand, IR Iran; Corresponding author: Maryam Yousefi, Young Researchers and Elites Club, Birjand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Birjand, IR Iran. Tel: +98-563-2443101 Seyed Ali Alavi Seyed Ali Alavi Faculty of Physical, Geography GIS and RS Center, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, IR Iran Faculty of Physical, Geography GIS and RS Center, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, IR Iran Javad Farsi Javad Farsi Department of Urban Development and Engineering, University of Bojnurd, Bojnurd, IR Iran Department of Urban Development and Engineering, University of Bojnurd, Bojnurd, IR Iran
en 10.17795/jhealthscope-19349 The Relationship Between Wet Bulb Globe Temperature and Physiological Strain Index in Muslim Women in Hot-Dry Condition in the Climatic Chamber The Relationship Between Wet Bulb Globe Temperature and Physiological Strain Index in Muslim Women in Hot-Dry Condition in the Climatic Chamber research-article research-article Results

The results showed that the average HR at resting, sitting (32℃ ± 0.1℃), and light workload (30℃ ± 0.1℃) were 78.52 ± 12.10, 69.74 ± 11.98, and 110.78 ± 17.91 beat/min, respectively. The average of ear canal temperature was estimated at 36.70℃ ± 0.36℃ for sitting workload and at 36.71℃ ± 0.27℃ light workload.

Conclusions

The findings of this study illustrated that the average HR and the core temperature measured in both sitting and light workload in hot-dry climatic condition were less than the threshold limit values established by the national institute for occupational safety and health(NIOSH) and American conference of governmental industrial hygienists (ACGIH). Comparing different HR and core temperatures during rest and activity showed a significant increase in the incidence of heat strain.

Background

The heat strain is one of the consequences of heat exposure in the work place. Different factors such as dry, wet, and radiant temperature, the intensity of physical activity, the kind of clothing, and the percentage of body covering affect the heat strain.

Objectives

The purpose of this study was to determine the association between the wet bulb globe temperature and the physiological strain index in Muslim women in hot-dry condition in the climate chamber.

Patients and Methods

This experimental study was performed on 30 healthy Muslim women with wearing Islamic clothing in two hot-dry climatic conditions with wet bulb globe temperature index (WBGT) of 32℃ ± 0.1℃ and 30℃ ± 0.1℃ respectively in sitting and light workload. The WBGT, oral temperature, and heart rate (HR) were measured. The data were analyzed based on descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation tests.

Results

The results showed that the average HR at resting, sitting (32℃ ± 0.1℃), and light workload (30℃ ± 0.1℃) were 78.52 ± 12.10, 69.74 ± 11.98, and 110.78 ± 17.91 beat/min, respectively. The average of ear canal temperature was estimated at 36.70℃ ± 0.36℃ for sitting workload and at 36.71℃ ± 0.27℃ light workload.

Conclusions

The findings of this study illustrated that the average HR and the core temperature measured in both sitting and light workload in hot-dry climatic condition were less than the threshold limit values established by the national institute for occupational safety and health(NIOSH) and American conference of governmental industrial hygienists (ACGIH). Comparing different HR and core temperatures during rest and activity showed a significant increase in the incidence of heat strain.

Background

The heat strain is one of the consequences of heat exposure in the work place. Different factors such as dry, wet, and radiant temperature, the intensity of physical activity, the kind of clothing, and the percentage of body covering affect the heat strain.

Objectives

The purpose of this study was to determine the association between the wet bulb globe temperature and the physiological strain index in Muslim women in hot-dry condition in the climate chamber.

Patients and Methods

This experimental study was performed on 30 healthy Muslim women with wearing Islamic clothing in two hot-dry climatic conditions with wet bulb globe temperature index (WBGT) of 32℃ ± 0.1℃ and 30℃ ± 0.1℃ respectively in sitting and light workload. The WBGT, oral temperature, and heart rate (HR) were measured. The data were analyzed based on descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation tests.

Wet Bulb Globe Temperature Index;Physiological Strain Index;Muslim Women;Climate Chamber Wet Bulb Globe Temperature Index;Physiological Strain Index;Muslim Women;Climate Chamber http://www.jhealthscope.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=19349 Peymaneh Habibi Peymaneh Habibi Department of Occupational Health Engineering, Student Research Center, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Department of Occupational Health Engineering, Student Research Center, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Habibollah Dehghan Habibollah Dehghan Department of Occupational Health Engineering, Student Research Center, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran; Department of Occupational Health Engineering, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-3117922733, Fax: +98-3116682509 Department of Occupational Health Engineering, Student Research Center, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran; Department of Occupational Health Engineering, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-3117922733, Fax: +98-3116682509 Azam Haghi Azam Haghi Department of Occupational Health Engineering, Student Research Center, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Department of Occupational Health Engineering, Student Research Center, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Mahnaz Shakerian Mahnaz Shakerian Department of Occupational Health Engineering, Student Research Center, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Department of Occupational Health Engineering, Student Research Center, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran
en 10.17795/jhealthscope-18925 Detection of Aflatoxin M1 in Dairy Products Marketed in Iran Detection of Aflatoxin M1 in Dairy Products Marketed in Iran research-article research-article Background

There are different types of aflatoxins, including aflatoxin M1, M2, G1, G2, B1 and B2 produced in the food chain, especially when the food is infected with fungi and can directly be consumed by humans. Considering that our country is located in the subtropical geographic region where temperature and humidity ecological factors are among determining factors in contamination with AFM1 and aflatoxin, contamination of milk products, as carcinogens, is a serious risk to the community's health.

Objectives

The main goal of the present study was to measure M1 aflatoxin in distributed traditional and pasteurized cheese in South Khorasan.

Materials and Methods

In this cross-sectional and analytical study, 43 samples of traditional cheese and 59 samples of pasteurized cheese in three cities and 59 samples of pasteurized milk were randomly selected and their M1 aflatoxin was measured by means of the ELISA method. The obtained data was analyzed using the SPSS software (version 15).

Results

Amongst the collected samples, 34.3% had measurable levels of aflatoxin; 32.6% of traditional cheese and 35.6% of pasteurized cheese and 94.9% of pasteurized milk had positive test results. Mean concentration of mycotoxin in the traditional cheese, pasteurized cheese and milk was 29.902 ± 4.77, 48.104 ± 8.92 and 22.394 ± 4.77 ng/L, respectively. Aflatoxin contamination levels in 12 samples of traditional cheese and 15 samples of pasteurized cheese were more than standard levels.

Conclusions

The high incidence of aflatoxin contamination in traditional and pasteurized cheese is worrying. Therefore, preventive measures that stop the entrance of the precursor of this poison (aflatoxin B1) into the food of lactating cattle are necessary.

Background

There are different types of aflatoxins, including aflatoxin M1, M2, G1, G2, B1 and B2 produced in the food chain, especially when the food is infected with fungi and can directly be consumed by humans. Considering that our country is located in the subtropical geographic region where temperature and humidity ecological factors are among determining factors in contamination with AFM1 and aflatoxin, contamination of milk products, as carcinogens, is a serious risk to the community's health.

Objectives

The main goal of the present study was to measure M1 aflatoxin in distributed traditional and pasteurized cheese in South Khorasan.

Materials and Methods

In this cross-sectional and analytical study, 43 samples of traditional cheese and 59 samples of pasteurized cheese in three cities and 59 samples of pasteurized milk were randomly selected and their M1 aflatoxin was measured by means of the ELISA method. The obtained data was analyzed using the SPSS software (version 15).

Results

Amongst the collected samples, 34.3% had measurable levels of aflatoxin; 32.6% of traditional cheese and 35.6% of pasteurized cheese and 94.9% of pasteurized milk had positive test results. Mean concentration of mycotoxin in the traditional cheese, pasteurized cheese and milk was 29.902 ± 4.77, 48.104 ± 8.92 and 22.394 ± 4.77 ng/L, respectively. Aflatoxin contamination levels in 12 samples of traditional cheese and 15 samples of pasteurized cheese were more than standard levels.

Conclusions

The high incidence of aflatoxin contamination in traditional and pasteurized cheese is worrying. Therefore, preventive measures that stop the entrance of the precursor of this poison (aflatoxin B1) into the food of lactating cattle are necessary.

Aflatoxin M1;Milk;Cheese;Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Aflatoxin M1;Milk;Cheese;Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay http://www.jhealthscope.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=18925 Behnam Barikbin Behnam Barikbin Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Environmental Health Engineering Department, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, IR Iran Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Environmental Health Engineering Department, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, IR Iran Ali Allahresani Ali Allahresani Chemistry Faculty, Birjand University, Birjand, IR Iran Chemistry Faculty, Birjand University, Birjand, IR Iran Rasoul Khosravi Rasoul Khosravi Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Environmental Health Engineering Department, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, IR Iran Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Environmental Health Engineering Department, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, IR Iran Maryam Khodadadi Maryam Khodadadi Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Environmental Health Engineering Department, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, IR Iran; Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Environmental Health Engineering Department, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, IR Iran. Tel: +98-5618825461; Fax: +98-5614440177 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Environmental Health Engineering Department, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, IR Iran; Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Environmental Health Engineering Department, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, IR Iran. Tel: +98-5618825461; Fax: +98-5614440177
en 10.17795/jhealthscope-23507 Degradation of Organic Matter of Municipal Sewage Sludge Using Ultrasound Treatment in Shiraz Wastewater Treatment Plant Degradation of Organic Matter of Municipal Sewage Sludge Using Ultrasound Treatment in Shiraz Wastewater Treatment Plant research-article research-article Results

The results of this study showed that the release of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) in the supernatant and SRF were in the range of 127.9-831 mg/L and 12.48-36.55 m/kg at 10 to 120 min ultrasonic contact time, respectively. In addition, TS and VS decreased from 57.98 and 56.31 to 52.69 and 49.87 mg/L, respectively. Despite the significant reduction in the solids, there was no considerable variation in SVI.

Conclusions

This method can be used as a pretreatment method for the treatment of the sewage sludge. Moreover, a complementary treatment is necessary to reach the standard limit.

Background

Nowadays, the reduction of sludge production in the activated sludge process as well as disposal restrictions have drawn much attention.

Objectives

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using ultrasound treatment in increasing the degradation of organic matter in sewage sludge from Shiraz Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant and also to assess its effect on sludge dewatering.

Materials and Methods

The samples were collected from the anaerobic digester of the Shiraz Wastewater Treatment Plant. The present study was conducted at the bench-scale method. The influence of different pH (3-9) and the effect of contact time (10-120 min) at the constant ultrasonic treatment (37 kHz) on degradation of organic matter were investigated. Since ultrasound is a cyclic sound pressure with a frequency greater than the upper limit of the human hearing range, this limit is approximately 20 kilohertz (20,000 hertz). In addition, the effect of ultrasonic treatment on the total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), sludge volume index (SVI) and specific resistance to filtration (SRF) were determined.

Results

The results of this study showed that the release of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) in the supernatant and SRF were in the range of 127.9-831 mg/L and 12.48-36.55 m/kg at 10 to 120 min ultrasonic contact time, respectively. In addition, TS and VS decreased from 57.98 and 56.31 to 52.69 and 49.87 mg/L, respectively. Despite the significant reduction in the solids, there was no considerable variation in SVI.

Conclusions

This method can be used as a pretreatment method for the treatment of the sewage sludge. Moreover, a complementary treatment is necessary to reach the standard limit.

Background

Nowadays, the reduction of sludge production in the activated sludge process as well as disposal restrictions have drawn much attention.

Objectives

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using ultrasound treatment in increasing the degradation of organic matter in sewage sludge from Shiraz Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant and also to assess its effect on sludge dewatering.

Materials and Methods

The samples were collected from the anaerobic digester of the Shiraz Wastewater Treatment Plant. The present study was conducted at the bench-scale method. The influence of different pH (3-9) and the effect of contact time (10-120 min) at the constant ultrasonic treatment (37 kHz) on degradation of organic matter were investigated. Since ultrasound is a cyclic sound pressure with a frequency greater than the upper limit of the human hearing range, this limit is approximately 20 kilohertz (20,000 hertz). In addition, the effect of ultrasonic treatment on the total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), sludge volume index (SVI) and specific resistance to filtration (SRF) were determined.

Ultrasonic;Sewage;Degradation;Biological Oxygen Demand Analysis Ultrasonic;Sewage;Degradation;Biological Oxygen Demand Analysis http://www.jhealthscope.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=23507 Mitra Abbasi Mitra Abbasi Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Mansooreh Dehghani Mansooreh Dehghani Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-7137251002 Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-7137251002 Gholamreza Moussavi Gholamreza Moussavi Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran Abalfazl Azhdarpoor Abalfazl Azhdarpoor Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran